Mohd. Yusof, Mohd. Badruddin (2004) The effects of socio-economic characteristics on household wastes in Johor Bahru district. PhD thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering.
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Studies on the effects of socio-economic backgrounds, lifestyles of individuals and recycling behavior on the generation of household wastes are lacking in the country. The objectives of the study include to analyze the effects of personal factors such as income, age, race, marital status, family size, and housing characteristics, as well as attitudes toward waste minimization on the amount of wastes produced and recycled. Survey data and waste characterization studies were gathered and conducted within both rural and urban areas within the Johor Bahru District involving samples of 500 urban and 385 rural families. Various statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program. The study reveals that recycling activities not only vary according to urban and rural differences, but also to the types of recyclable materials concerned. There is a significant difference in the recycling of papers and newspapers, paper cardboards, and plastics amongst the two communities. Based on linear regression analysis, newspaper recyclers amongst rural residents appear to have low income and are married, while the plastic recyclers older groups. On the other hand, urban residents who recycle paper, cardboards, and plastics appear to be older with low educational background (with p < 0.05 and 0.01). Racial factor was found to be significant only amongst urban residents in terms of the selling of newspapers, as the Chinese (65% amongst themselves) and Malays (46%) were found to be active in the activity. Renters are generally found to be non-recyclers in the study areas. The study supports the theory connecting the environmental values with recycling. Those who support the need to recycle are also found to separate their wastes, reuse plastics and cardboards indicating the positive correlation between values and recycling. Average solid waste figures per household in the study area are 1.78 kg (urban) and 2.12 kg (rural), with per capita weights of 0.41 and 0.48 kg, respectively (which is lower than the average per capita for the whole Johor Bahru area (1.29) due to the exclusion of yard and bulky wastes from the study. From the linear regression, the explanatory variables for the wastes in the urban area are found to be marital status and home-cooking activities (p < 0.01) with a correlation value, R of 0.45). Rural wastes, on the other hand, increase as the family size (p < 0.01) and the frequency of home cooking increase (p < 0.01) with R value of 0.21. The research supports previous findings indicating higher organic and food wastes in the lower-income or rural areas (38 %) and higher paper wastes (30 %) in the urban or high-income areas. Both areas give strong support for resource recycling facility, an increase in number of recycling programs, promotions, and the enforcement of a mandatory recycling and source separation programs all with mean values of between 3.6 and 4.2 (i.e., 5 being â€˜strongly agreeâ€™).
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Additional Information:||Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy) - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2004; Supervisor : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hj Fadil Othman|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||waste management, waste minimization, solid waste, environmental management|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering|
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
|Deposited By:||Pn Khairulbahiyah Yaakub|
|Deposited On:||11 Sep 2007 08:33|
|Last Modified:||15 Aug 2012 03:23|
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