Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository

The enhanced naturally occurring radioactivity of negative ion clothing and attendant risk

Hassan, H. J. and Hashim, S. and Abu Hanifah, N. Z. H. and Abdul Hadi, M. F. R. and Mohd Sanusi, M. S. and Bradley, D. A. and Tenorio, R. G. and Mohd. Tahar, R. (2021) The enhanced naturally occurring radioactivity of negative ion clothing and attendant risk. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11 (12). ISSN 2076-3417


Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app11125412


The study investigates commercially available negative ion clothing, and evaluations are made using gamma-ray spectroscopy and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. Observed to contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), evaluations are made of the radiological risk arising from the use of these as items of everyday wear, undergarments in particular. Organ doses from these were simulated using the MIRD5 mathematical female phantom, with the incorporation of dose conversion factors (DCFs). At 175 ± 26, 1732 ± 247, and 207 ± 38 Bq, for238U,232Th, and40K respectively, item code S05 was found to possess the greatest activity, while item code S07 was shown to have the least activity, at 2 ± 0.5 and 15 ± 2 Bq, and again for238U and232Th, respectively. Sample code S11 recorded least activity, at 29 ± 5 Bq, for40K. Among the clothing items, sample item code S05 offered the greatest concentrations of Th, U and Zr, with percentage means of 1.23 ± 0.1, 0.045 ± 0.001, and 1.29 ± 0.1, respectively, giving rise to an annual effective dose of 1.57 mSv/y assuming a nominal wearing period of 24 h per day. Accordingly, the annual public dose limit of 1 mSv can be exceeded by their use.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:consumer products, Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation, regulations
Subjects:Q Science > QC Physics
ID Code:94495
Deposited By: Narimah Nawil
Deposited On:31 Mar 2022 22:55
Last Modified:31 Mar 2022 22:55

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