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Prolonged high biomass diatom blooms induced formation of hypoxic-anoxic zones in the inner part of Johor Strait

Mohd. Din, Monaliza and Abdul Wahab, Mohd. Firdaus and Mohamad, Shaza Eva and Jamaluddin, Haryati and Shahir, Shafinaz and Ibrahim, Zaharah and Hii, Kieng Soon and Tan, Suh Nih and Leaw, Chui Pin and Gu, Haifeng and Lim, Po Teen (2020) Prolonged high biomass diatom blooms induced formation of hypoxic-anoxic zones in the inner part of Johor Strait. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27 (34). pp. 42948-42959. ISSN 0944-1344

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10184-6

Abstract

The Johor Strait has experienced rapid development of various human activities and served as the main marine aquaculture area for the two countries that bordered the strait. Several fish kill incidents in 2014 and 2015 have been confirmed, attributed to the algal blooms of ichthyotoxic dinoflagellates; however, the cause of fish kill events after 2016 was not clarified and the causative organisms remained unknown. To clarify the potential cause of fish kills along the Johor Strait, a 1-year field investigation was conducted with monthly sampling between May 2018 and April 2019. Monthly vertical profiles of physical water parameters (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen levels) were measured in situ at different depths (subsurface, 1 m, 5 m, and 8 m) depending on the ambient depth of the water column at the sampling stations. The spatial-temporal variability of macronutrients and chlorophyll a content was analyzed. Our results showed that high chlorophyll a concentration (up to 48.8 μg/L) and high biomass blooms of Skeletonema, Chaetoceros, Rhizosolenia, and Thalassiosira were observed seasonally at the inner part of the strait. A hypoxic to anoxic dead zone, with the dissolved oxygen levels ranging from 0.19 to 1.7 mg/L, was identified in the inner Johor Strait, covering an estimated area of 10.3 km2. The occurrence of high biomass diatom blooms and formation of the hypoxic-anoxic zone along the inner part Johor Strait were likely the culprits of some fish kill incidents after 2016.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:fish kill, harmful algal bloom, nutrients, oxygen depletion
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions:Science
ID Code:90875
Deposited By: Yanti Mohd Shah
Deposited On:31 May 2021 21:40
Last Modified:31 May 2021 21:40

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