Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository

Integrating water-energy-nexus in carbon footprint analysis in water utility company

Hafizan, C. and Noor, Z. Z. and Hussein, N. and Samanaseh, V. and Sabeen, A. H. and Yusuf, R. O. (2019) Integrating water-energy-nexus in carbon footprint analysis in water utility company. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8 (2). pp. 624-632. ISSN 2277-3878


Official URL: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.35940/ijrte.b1639.078219


The purpose of this paper is to highlight the water-energy-nexus within the context of carbon footprint methodology and water utility industry. In particular, the carbon management for water utility industry is crucial in reducing carbon emission within the upstream water distribution system. The concept of water-energy nexus alone however can be misleading due to exclusion of indirect and embodied energy involved in the water production. The study highlights the total energy use within water supply system as well as embedded carbon emission through carbon footprint methodology. The case study approach is used as a research method. The carbon footprint analysis includes data collection from water utility company; and data identification of direct and indirect carbon emission from corporation operation. The result indicates that the indirect and embodied energy may not be significant in certain operation area but the energy use may be ambiguous when these elements are excluded. Integrating carbon footprint methodology within the water supply system can improve the understanding on water-energy-nexus when direct and indirect energy use is included in the analysis. This paper aims to benefit academics, government agencies and particularly water utility companies in integrating carbon footprint analysis in water production.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:carbon management, water utility industry, water-energy-nexus
Subjects:T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions:Chemical and Energy Engineering
ID Code:89363
Deposited By: Narimah Nawil
Deposited On:09 Feb 2021 12:26
Last Modified:09 Feb 2021 12:26

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