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Preparation of Ti-SO3H/ICG using microwave-assisted for esterification of palm fatty acid distillate to methyl ester

Saimon, Nur Nazlina and Thavil, Suwew and Jusoh, Mazura and Ngadi, Norzita and Zakaria, Zaki Yamani (2018) Preparation of Ti-SO3H/ICG using microwave-assisted for esterification of palm fatty acid distillate to methyl ester. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 63 . pp. 463-468. ISSN 2283-9216


Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3303/CET1863078


The utilisation of low-cost yet valuable feedstock such as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in the replacement of edible oils have a great potential in solving high-cost problem in biodiesel industries. Heterogeneous solid acid catalyst is the most proficient to esterify the feedstock containing high free fatty acid (FFA). Most of the prepared catalysts from the previous studies were produced using a conventional heating method which is basically time and energy consuming. The development of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst from sulfonated glucose and impregnation with titanium (Ti-SO3H/ICG) was prepared by using a microwave-assisted heating method with various heating time during the sulfonation process. The heating times taken were 3, 5, 7 and 9 min for acid treatment using H2SO4. The catalysts showed an outstanding result in reducing the catalyst separation problem and efficiently producing high percentage yield of biodiesel. The physical and chemical properties of the modified catalyst were analysed by using Temperature Programmed Desorption-Ammonia (TPD-NH3) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). 7 min Ti-SO3/ICG showed the best performance catalyst due to its high surface area and acid site density, which were 78.37 m2/g and 15.16 mmol/g. The catalyst showed highest percentage yield and conversion of 98.92 % and 80.24 % at 70 °C, with a molar ratio of methanol to PFAD of 10: 1, 2.5 wt% of catalyst loading and 90 min of reaction time. A kinetic model was studied and the activation energy (Ea) obtained was 13.43 kJ/mol.K, the lowest value recorded as compared with the activation energy from previous studies in related field.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), edible oils
Subjects:T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions:Chemical and Energy Engineering
ID Code:84441
Deposited By: Widya Wahid
Deposited On:11 Jan 2020 15:08
Last Modified:11 Jan 2020 15:08

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