Satellite remote sensing for hydrothermal alteration minerals mapping of subtle geothermal system in unexplored aseismic environment

Abubakar, Aliyu Ja’afar (2018) Satellite remote sensing for hydrothermal alteration minerals mapping of subtle geothermal system in unexplored aseismic environment. PhD thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Built Environment.


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Mapping prospective geothermal (GT) resources and monitoring associated surface manifestations can be challenging and prohibitively expensive in subtle systems especially when using conventional survey methods. Remote sensing offers a synoptic and costeffective capability for identification of GT systems. The objective of this research is to refine and develop methods of identifying unconventional GT systems by evaluating the applicability of the ASTER, Landsat 8 and Hyperion satellite data for mapping hydrothermal alteration indicator minerals as proxy for detecting subtle GT targets in unexplored aseismic settings. The study area is Yankari Park in North Eastern Nigeria, characterized by the thermal springs; Wikki, Mawulgo, Gwana and Dimmil. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Linear spectral Unmixing (LSU) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) were comparatively evaluated by using image derived spectra and corresponding library spectra for mapping pixel abundance of GT indicator minerals in a novel and efficient manner. The results indicated that employing image derived spectra from field validated and laboratory verified regions of interest as reference, gives more accurate results than using library spectra around known alteration zones remotely detectable on the imagery. The MTMF provided high performance subpixel target detection with an accuracy of 50-100% and 70-100% subpixel abundance for argillicphyllic- silicic and propylitic alteration mineral assemblages respectively, as compared to less than 10% for the same endmembers when using library spectra. The MTMF is thus best suited for mapping alterations associated with subtle GT systems than the less selective LSU. The per-pixel SAM was unsuitable for target detection of alteration indicators of interest with poor overall accuracy of 33.81% and 0.24 Kappa coefficient at 0.02 radian angle. Results of mapping thermally anomalous pixels do not conform to known locations of the thermal springs signifying the limitations of the current thermal sensors in mapping low temperature GT systems even at 60m spatial resolution. However, examining the spatial correlation of the anomaly areas with the major geologic structure systems from geological map of the study area indicates a close affinity between them and with previously reported thermal gradients within heat insulating sedimentary formations. This study establishes the integrative applicability of Multispectral and Hyperspectral data for mapping subtle GT targets in unexplored regions using in-situ validated alteration mineral mapping and thermal anomaly detection. This has significant implication for the GT green energy industry as the developed methods and GT prospect map could aid the prefeasibility stage narrowing of targets for in-depth geophysical, geochemical, geothermometric and related surveys.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information:Thesis (Doktor Falsafah (Geoinformatik)) - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2018; Supervisor : Prof. Sr. Dr. Mazlan Hashim
Subjects:G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General) > G70.39-70.6 Remote sensing
Divisions:Built Environment
ID Code:81858
Deposited By: Fazli Masari
Deposited On:29 Sep 2019 18:53
Last Modified:29 Sep 2019 18:53

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