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Non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists’ behaviour in Melaka World Heritage Site

Md. Khairi, Nurul Diyana (2017) Non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists’ behaviour in Melaka World Heritage Site. PhD thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Built Environment.



World Heritage Sites (WHSs) nowadays are facing an increasing number of tourist arrivals after being designated as a WHS. This burgeoning popularity has negatively impacted the sustainability of the historic environment of the sites. Too many pressures from human activity, especially tourists at the WHS, could potentially damage the physical condition of the site and compromise its Outstanding Universal Value. Previous studies on managing a WHS have only focused on policy designation and participation from local stakeholders. However, the tourist perspective is often neglected. Therefore, there is an emerging view that tourists should be placed at the centre of the management and planning process. In this context, understanding tourist behaviour is one of the important aspects in managing a WHS. However, tourist behaviour is a complex phenomenon. Tourist behaviour constantly changes because each tourist has his or her own preferences. One of the ways to determine tourist behaviour is through their consumption at the destination. Therefore, the study aims to measure international tourist behaviour through their consumption by integrating their non-spatial and spatial characteristics. In this case, Melaka WHS is used as the study area. The study used comparative quantitative techniques consisting of both traditional and advanced tracking methods. The method was conducted in two stages to acquire the non-spatial and spatial data of tourists at budget hotels within the core zone area in Melaka WHS. A total of 384 Free Independent Tourists participated in the survey for the study. Questionnaires, trip diaries, and tracking devices were the main instruments for capturing data. The results reveal a degree of attachment between the non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists. Additionally, country of origin and age are found to influence the dynamic characteristics of tourists. On the other hand, the time factor strongly correlates with other tourist spatial characteristics. Interestingly, money spent at each attraction proves to be a reliable source in understanding tourist behaviour. The findings also indicate that tourist spatial behavioural pattern is highly influenced by dynamic characteristics. The evaluation of tourist behaviour based on their consumption shows that international tourists essentially consume more spaces and time at primary elements such as historical attractions. However, they consume more money at secondary elements such as food and shopping. The finding on tourist behaviour is important for responsible authorities. These provide a different point of view in managing tourist behaviour and movement. Interviews were also conducted to validate the findings from those responsible and knowledgeable in managing WHS. The results on tourist behaviour can be used to establish effective tools such as carrying capacity, wayfinding, and transportation management, to develop a better visitor management plan for Melaka WHS.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information:Thesis (Doktor Falsafah (Perancangan Bandar dan Wilayah)) - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2017; Supervisor : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hairul Nizam Ismail
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races > HT101-395 Sociology, Urban
Divisions:Built Environment
ID Code:79469
Deposited By: Widya Wahid
Deposited On:31 Oct 2018 12:41
Last Modified:31 Oct 2018 12:41

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