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Assessment of impact of urbanisation on background radiation exposure and human health risk estimation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Sanusi, M. S. M. and Ramli, A. T. and Hassan, W. M. S. W. and Lee, M. H. and Izham, A. and Said, M. N. and Wagiran, H. and Heryanshah, A. (2017) Assessment of impact of urbanisation on background radiation exposure and human health risk estimation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Environment International, 104 . pp. 91-101. ISSN 0160-4120

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Abstract

Kuala Lumpur has been undergoing rapid urbanisation process, mainly in infrastructure development. The opening of new township and residential in former tin mining areas, particularly in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Construction practices, i.e. reclamation and dredging in these areas are potential to enhance the radioactivity levels of soil and subsequently, increase the existing background gamma radiation levels. This situation is worsened with the utilisation of tin tailings as construction materials apart from unavoidable soil pollutions due to naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction materials, e.g. granitic aggregate, cement and red clay brick. This study was conducted to assess the urbanisation impacts on background gamma radiation in Kuala Lumpur. The study found that the mean value of measured dose rate was 251 ± 6 nGy h− 1 (156–392 nGy h− 1) and 4 times higher than the world average value. High radioactivity levels of 238U (95 ± 12 Bq kg− 1), 232Th (191 ± 23 Bq kg− 1,) and 40K (727 ± 130 Bq kg− 1) in soil were identified as the major source of high radiation exposure. Based on statistical ANOVA, t-test, and analyses of cumulative probability distribution, this study has statistically verified the dose enhancements in the background radiation. The effective dose was estimated to be 0.31 ± 0.01 mSv y− 1 per man. The recommended ICRP reference level (1–20 mSv y− 1) is applicable to the involved existing exposure situation in this study. The estimated effective dose in this study is lower than the ICRP reference level and too low to cause deterministic radiation effects. Nevertheless based on estimations of lifetime radiation exposure risks, this study found that there was small probability for individual in Kuala Lumpur being diagnosed with cancer and dying of cancer.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:rapid urbanisation, infrastructure development
Subjects:Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions:Science
ID Code:76141
Deposited By: Widya Wahid
Deposited On:30 May 2018 12:23
Last Modified:30 May 2018 12:23

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