Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: the role of tourism and ecological footprint

Ozturk, I. and Al Mulali, U. and Saboori, B. (2016) Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: the role of tourism and ecological footprint. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 (2). pp. 1916-1928. ISSN 0944-1344

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Abstract

The main objective of this study is to examine the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an environment indicator and GDP from tourism as the economic indicator. To achieve this goal, an environmental degradation model is established during the period of 1988–2008 for 144 countries. The results from the time series generalized method of moments (GMM) and the system panel GMM revealed that the number of countries that have a negative relationship between the ecological footprint and its determinants (GDP growth from tourism, energy consumption, trade openness, and urbanization) is more existent in the upper middle- and high-income countries. Moreover, the EKC hypothesis is more present in the upper middle- and high-income countries than the other income countries. From the outcome of this research, a number of policy recommendations were provided for the investigated countries.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:ecological footprint, environmental degradation, environmental impact assessment, environmental indicator, environmental modeling, environmental policy, global perspective, Gross Domestic Product, income, Kuznets curve, policy approach, time series, tourism, ecology, economics, environment, environmental protection, travel, urbanization, Conservation of Natural Resources, Ecology, Environment, Travel, Urbanization
Subjects:G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > G Geography (General) > G154.9-155.8 Travel and state. Tourism
Divisions:Geoinformation and Real Estate
ID Code:74452
Deposited By: Fazli Masari
Deposited On:30 Nov 2017 07:58
Last Modified:30 Nov 2017 07:58

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