Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository

Antibiotics in the environment: mini review

Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan and Shahperi, Rafidah and Mohd. Aris, Maizatul Asnie (2012) Antibiotics in the environment: mini review. World Journal of Environmental Biosciences, 1 (1). pp. 1-4. ISSN 2277-8047


Official URL: https://environmentaljournals.org/storage/models/a...


Knowledge of pharmaceuticals in the environment is merely minute. Pharmaceuticals can enter the aquatic environment through the sewage treatment systems when they are excreted by people, or if they are disposed in the home. They can also enter sewage treatment works or waterways as a result of discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants or medical establishments. The emission routes of veterinary drugs and feed additives to surface water are more complex than those of human pharmaceuticals. Emission to the surface water can take place either directly, when the animals are kept on pasture or indirectly by run-off and leaching through the soil. From an environmental side, the major effect of antibiotics is the toxic effect that may be exerted on aquatic organisms and disruption of the ecological balance. In addition, the presence of antibiotics in natural systems leads to the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria. This paper outlines the different anticipated exposure routes to the environment, present knowledge of occurrence, fate and effect of pharmaceuticals.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:antibiotic, pharmaceutical, degradation, environment
Subjects:R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions:Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology
ID Code:31675
Deposited By: Fazli Masari
Deposited On:05 Jun 2013 04:29
Last Modified:26 Mar 2019 08:07

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