Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository

Occupational chemical exposure and risk estimation in process development and design

Hassim, Mimi Haryani and Hurme, Markku (2010) Occupational chemical exposure and risk estimation in process development and design. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 88 (4). 225 - 235. ISSN 0957-5820

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2010.03.011


Each year more people die from diseases caused by work than are killed in industrial accidents. Therefore, methods are needed to evaluate occupational health hazards as early as possible when the process is still under development. A method for estimating inhalative exposures and risks in petrochemical and related plants is presented. The method is simple and suffices with the limited data availability during the early design stages. The steps of the method, which utilizes preliminary process flow diagrams are as follows: first the fugitive emissions and process plot areas are estimated based on precalculated process modules representing the typical process sections (such as a distillation unit). Chemical concentration in the air is then calculated based on the wind velocity probability and the estimated process cross-sectional area. For this purpose a typical wind velocity distribution in the area is used. The worker risk of exposure to chemicals is evaluated either based on the concentration in air by using the hazard quotient method or calculating the carcinogenic chemicals intake and the resulting risk of cancer. The values are compared to the benchmarks. As a result the process route health characteristics such as fugitive emissions rate, critical wind speed, chemical concentration in air and intake amount as well as the corresponding risk of exposure are produced. By using statistical meteorological data, health risks of occupationalexposure can be estimated more realistically as probabilities. The approach is capable of comparing alternative processes to select the concept which is inherently occupationally healthier. Using this method, the exposure problems of a process can be identified earlier and proper decisions can be made early in processdevelopment or predesign stage. The concentration-based method is demonstrated by a case study of six competing manufacturing routes for methyl methacrylate (MMA). The C3 is found to be the most harmful alternative to health. Both concentration-based and intake-based methods are applied. The study indicates that the intake-based riskestimation benchmark is stricter than the exposure limit-based benchmark for carcinogens.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Worker exposure, Risk assessment, Inherent safety
Subjects:T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions:Chemical Engineering
ID Code:26565
Deposited By: Widya Wahid
Deposited On:18 Jul 2012 10:52
Last Modified:31 Oct 2018 20:30

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