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The implementation of science technology and innovation policy in addressing the well-being of the low-income households in Malaysia

Nasir, Noor Rizawati (2021) The implementation of science technology and innovation policy in addressing the well-being of the low-income households in Malaysia. PhD thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Razak Faculty of Technology & Informatics.


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As an emerging economy, various policies have been introduced, and a range of policy measures have been undertaken by the Malaysian government to drive the nation’s socio-economic development towards realising the high-income and advanced nation’s status. Successfully reduced the inequality gap and poverty rate in the past few years, the government focus has expanded to address the low-income households’ (LIHs) needs to ensure that this income group is elevated into the middle-income group by 2020. In line with the evolving needs resulting from the global changing socio-economic landscape where the LIHs are more prone to be adversely impacted, the role of science, technology, and innovation (STI) has been recognised for its potential to cater to the needs of the LIHs. Several policy measures have been introduced in the STI policy, and programmes have been implemented consistent with the National Policy on Science, Technology, and Innovation 2013 - 2020 towards achieving the nation’s main goals. Despite the growing significance, there have been limited empirical studies undertaken in STI for social development, particularly in Malaysia’s setting. Hence, underpinned by implementation theory and models of implementation, this study explored the implementation of the STI policy and its programmes that aimed to address the LIHs in Malaysia by delving into the potential challenges affecting the implementation process. This exploratory case study adopted a qualitative approach, where data were collected based on semi-structured interview and document analysis to illustrate the implementation of the STI policy and its programmes. Fifteen participants were selected based on the purposive sampling technique, and they consisted of policymakers, programme coordinators, programme implementers, and beneficiaries who were involved directly and indirectly in the STI policy formulation and implementation of the selected programmes. The data from interviews and documents were analysed into themes using Nvivo 12 software and reported in a narrative style. The findings revealed that several challenges influenced the implementation process occurred at the macro and micro-levels that need to be addressed. A policy implementation framework with a corresponding set of elements namely, leadership and commitment (internal), communication and coordination, priority setting, capacity building, support system, funding mechanism, data and information, and monitoring and evaluation (external) was proposed as a guide for future policy development and implementation analysis. This study concludes that clear policy direction, targeted commitment and strong leadership could facilitate effective implementation of the policy, alongside the provision of sufficient enabling environment. Despite several limitations, this empirical study contributes to the knowledge and practice in the field of STI policy, which currently almost limited studies have been carried out on this discourse in Malaysia.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:low-income households’ (LIHs), STI policy, socio-economic
Subjects:H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Q Science > Q Science (General)
T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions:Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology
ID Code:98064
Deposited By: Yanti Mohd Shah
Deposited On:12 Nov 2022 00:57
Last Modified:12 Nov 2022 00:57

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