Abu Bakar, Suhaimi and Marji, Adi Khirazli (2008) Verification of Hankinson and Norris formulas for local timber species loaded in compression. In: Mechanical Properties And Bending Strength Theory For Malaysian Structural Timber. Penerbit UTM, Johor, pp. 11-23. ISBN 978-983-52-0567-5
Official URL: http://www.fka.utm.my/jsb/redzuan/5P/bookchapter_f...
Timber may be described as an orthotropic material with unique and independent mechanical properties in the directions of three mutually perpendicular axes—longitudinal, radial, and tangential. These axes, called the principal axes, are shown in Figure 1. The longitudinal axis L is parallel to the fiber grain; the radial axis R is perpendicular to the grain and normal to the growth rings; and the tangential axis T is perpendicular to the grain and tangent to the growth rings. The planes formed by these axes are planes of material symmetry or principal planes. A structural member made of timber, such as a rectangular beam or column, also has three geometrical axes parallel with the edges of the member. Stresses acting in the member are usually described in terms of the geometrical axes, whereas mechanical properties of timber are always described in terms of its principal axes. The two sets of axes are not always parallel, producing intersections between the grain (longitudinal axis) and the sides of the member—a condition called cross grain. (Cross grain occurs because the grain often forms a somewhat helical pattern or because of tree crook and sweep.) Therefore, for engineering applications, it is necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties with respect to the geometrical axes of the member.
|Item Type:||Book Section|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||orthotropic material, Hankinson and Norris formulas|
|Subjects:||T Technology > T Technology (General)|
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
|Deposited By:||Fazli Masari|
|Deposited On:||07 Sep 2012 02:23|
|Last Modified:||07 Sep 2012 02:23|
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