Mohamad, Fatimah and Abdul Rahim, Mohd. Farhan (2008) Application of communication technology in Malaysian tolling system. In: Wireless Communication Technology In Malaysia. Penerbit UTM , Johor, pp. 55-61. ISBN 978-983-52-0656-6
The Malaysian expressway network can be considered the best expressway network in Southeast Asia and third in Asia after Japan and China . The total length is 1,192 kilometres (740 miles) . All Malaysian toll expressways are managed in the Build-OperateTransfer (BOT) system  .Every expressway and highway in Malaysia has a toll system, which are either a closed toll system or open toll system and known as Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC) . Electronic toll collection (ETC), an adaptation of military "identification friend or foe" technology, aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads . It is a technological implementation of a road pricing concept . It determines whether the cars passing are enrolled in the program, alerts enforcers for those that are not, and electronically debits the accounts of registered car owners without requiring them to stop .The first ETC system was implemented along 22km expressways in 1995 and as of today, the whole stretch of 1,459 km expressways are equipped with a single ETC system allowing for full interoperable . The first ETC system was Technology implemented is 2.45GHz microwave in 1994 and another highway operator introduced the same technology in 1997 . The system was further enhanced in 2001 to meet the international standard of 5.8GHz . A contactless smartcard ETC was introduced in 1997 and the system was enhanced further with the introduction of twopiece On-Board-Unit for ETC in 1998 . This system later adopted as the ‘single ETC’ system for Malaysia .
|Item Type:||Book Section|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering|
|Deposited By:||Liza Porijo|
|Deposited On:||28 Oct 2011 04:57|
|Last Modified:||30 Apr 2013 03:59|
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