Mustapa, A. N. and Manan, Z. A. and Mohd. Azizi, C. Y. and Nik Norulaini, N. A. and Mohd. Omar, A. K. (2009) Effects of parameters on yield for sub-critical R134a extraction of palm oil. Journal of Food Engineering, 95 (4). pp. 606-616. ISSN 02608774
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.06.025
Extraction of palm oil from its palm mesocarp using sub-critical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) as an alternative solvent to supercritical CO2 was studied. The effects of pressure, temperature, flowrate and sample pre-treatment method on extraction yield were examined. Dynamic method was used to determine palm oil solubility at flowrate between 0.5 and 5.0 ml/min. Extraction was performed at pressures between 45 and 100 bar which was lower than those required by CO2 solvent, and at temperatures between 40° and 80 °C. The results show that extraction yields using R134a increased with pressure and temperature, and that temperature effect (p-value = 0.0000) on palm oil solubility prevailed over that of pressure (p-value = 0.0087). The maximum yield of 66.06 w/w% was obtained at 100 bar and 80 °C which was the best pressure and temperature. Substantial oil yields at relatively lower pressure proved that sub-critical R134a is a viable alternative to CO2 for extraction of palm oil.
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||carbon dioxide, extraction, palm oil, R134a, solubility, sub-critical|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology|
S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
|Divisions:||Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering (Formerly known)|
|Deposited By:||Ms Zalinda Shuratman|
|Deposited On:||26 Aug 2011 04:49|
|Last Modified:||26 Aug 2011 04:49|
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